Research is directed towards neurophysiology of Parkinson’s disease, dystonia and essential tremor Research interests include mechanisms of deep brain stimulation action, role of neuronal oscillations in Parkinson’s disease, dystonia and essential tremor. The current focus of my work in intraoperative recordings from movement disorders patients is measuring the deficit in short- and long term activity-dependent plasticity in basal ganglia structures and the powerful effects of dopamine in reversing this deficit. Additional work relates to human subcallosal cortex and the possible role of neuronal activity, synaptic plasticity and oscillations in contributing to depression symptoms and outcome from DBS therapy. Lab animal work involves multiarray neurophysiological recording in cortex following acute focal stroke, and newer techniques of voltammetry to measure serotonin and dopamine release from cortical stimulation. Some previous research activities relate to neurophysiology of pain and temperature sensation in humans and animals.